ZSH tips

ZSH's tips

man zsh          Zsh overview 
man zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
man zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
man zshparam     Zsh parameters
man zshoptions   Zsh options
man zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
man zshzle       Zsh command line editing
man zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
man zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
man zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
man zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
man zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
man zshall       Meta-man page containing all of the above
info --index-search=age zsh         # get man info for zsh function age *N*
zinfo(){info --index-search=$1 zsh} *N*

Install on Linux > yum install zsh *N* > yum update zsh *N* # install from source ver=5.5.1 wget --no-check-certificate https://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/files/zsh/$ver/zsh-$ver.tar.gz tar zxvf zsh-$ver.tar.gz yum install gcc ncurses-devel # if required cd zsh-$ver && ./configure && make && sudo make install
Global aliases Searching and filtering my mysql database with my own utility searchdb >searchdb client1 | grep -i website1 | fmt -50 | putclip How you can simplify this using 3 zsh Global Aliases >searchdb client1 G website1 F P alias -g ND='*(/om[1])' # newest directory alias -g NF='*(.om[1])' # newest file # edit newest file in newest directory *N* VDF(){cd *(/om[1]);F=$(echo *(.om[1]));vi $F} #Example of use cp NF ND # copy newest file to newest directory cat NF > $(print NF).txt # *N*
# useful zsh stuff *N* ls *(.) # list just regular files *N* ls -d *(/) # list just directories *C* ls *(.[3]) # third file *N* vi *(.om[1]) # vi newest file cd **/*.php(.om[1]:h) # cd to directory of newest php file *N* gvim.exe *~vssver.scc(.om[1]) & # newest file ignoring any vssver.scc vi -p *(.om[1,3]) # open 3 newest files in tabs (gvim) ls -lt **/*(.om[1,20]) # list 20 newest files anywhere in directory hierarchy (very useful) *N* ls -lt **/*.php(.om[1,20]) # list 20 newest php files anywhere in directory hierarchy (very useful) *N* grep -i "$1" **/*.{js,php,css}~(libs|temp|tmp|test)/* # exclude directories from grep *N* EXTENDED_GLOB required ls -lt **/*~*vssver.scc(.om[1,20]) # excluding vssver.scc *N* ls -lt **/^vssver.scc(.om[1,20]) # excluding vssver.scc (simpler) *N* ls -lt **/^(vssver.scc|*.ini)(.om[1,20]) # excluding vssver and any *.ini *N* ls *(.)^php~*.c~*.txt # useful? *N* ls (../)#junk2/down.txt(:a) # locate a file "upwards" *N* vi *(m0) # re-edit all files changed today! ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls -l *(.m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago (ignore directories) vi **/main.php # where ever it is in hierarchy ls -l **/main.{php,js,css} # *N* ls fred^erick* # list all files fred* except frederick* *N* ls *.^pdf # list all but pdf's *NN* ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls x^[3-5]* # list files x* except x3 to x5 *N* ls **/*~*/.git/* # ignore all git subdirectories *~* matches a path *N* vi !$ # vi last parameter vi !-2:2 # second parameter of second but last command vi !$:r.php # vi last parameter but change extension to .php ^php^cfm # modify previous command (good for correcting spellos) ls *(.L0) # list pesky empty files (yes that is a zero) *N* ls -l *(L-2) # list file size less than 2 bytes *N* ls -l *(.L-20) # list file size less than 20 bytes - . ignore directories *N* # zsh list largest / biggest files , files larger than ls -l *(Lk+100) # list file size larger/greater than 100kb *N* ls -l *(Lm+2) # list file size larger/greater than 2 mbs *N* ls **/*(.Lm+10) # list files larger than 10MB anywhere in hierarchy *N* ls -hlS **/*(.Lm+2) | less # list largest files largest first *N* ls -hlS /**/*(.OL[1,10]) # find the 10 biggest files on your system *N* # find 5 largest files in hierarchy with filter by file type & exclude directories ls -lS **/*.(php|inc)~(libs|locallibs)/*(.OL[1,5]) # *N* ls *(.m0) # modified today (last 24 hours) ls *(.m-1) # modified today (last 24 hours) ls *(.^m0) # not modified today ls *.*(m3) # modified 3 days ago ls *.*(mh3) # modified 3 hours ago ls *.*(mh-3) # less than 3 hours ls *.*(mh+3) # more than 3 hours ls *.*(^mh3) # all files not 3 hours old mv *(.mw+2) old/ # older than 2 weeks *N* mv *(.mM+6) old/ # older than 6 months *N* alias -g OLD='*(.mw+3)' # *N* alias -g OLDH='*(.mw+3) # m=minutes,d=days(default)w=week,M=Month +n older than n,-n younger than, j n equal to' # *N* alias -g SIZ ='*(Lk+100)' alias -g SIZH='*(Lk+100) # L0=zero,Lk kilo,Lm Meg,OL[1,10] 10 largest' # counts requires extended globbing *N* setopt EXTENDED_GLOB # lots of clever stuff requires this ls DATA_[0-9](#c3).csv # match all files DATA_nnn.csv *N* ls a(#c3).txt # match aaa.txt *N* ls DATA_[0-9](#c4,7).csv # match DATA_nnnn.csv to DATA_nnnnnnn.txt *N* ls DATA_[0-9](#c4,).csv # match DATA_nnnn.csv to DATA_nnnnn.txt etc *N* ls DATA_[0-9](#c,4).csv # match DATA_n.csv to DATA_nnn.txt *N* touch {1..5} {6,7,8,12} {00..03} ls <-> <-6> <4-> <4-5> 0<-> {1..5} {2,3} {00..03} (4|5) [3-4] [3-47-8] 0? ?2 *2 # *N* ls {p..q}<5->{1..4}.(#I)php(.N) # *N* touch {y,y2}.cfm ls y2#.cfm y{2,}.cfm y(2|).cfm {y2,y}.cfm (y|y2).cfm y*.cfm # *N* touch {t,p}{01..99}.{php,html,c} # generate 600 test files *N* # grep -i "$1" */*.php~libs/*~temp/*~test/* # exclude directories lib,temp,test from grep *N* EXTENDED_GLOB required # file ownership/permissions ls -ld *.*(u:apache:) # excluding files a-m but only if owned by apache -rwxr-xr-x. 1 nobody (owner) apache (Group) 0 Feb 24 10:23 x.x ls -l *.*~[a-m]*(u:nobody:g:apache:.xX) # find all files owned by root (u0), world-writable (W), more than 10k in size (Lk+10) and modified during the last hour (m0) ls **/*(u0WLk+10m0) # find all files that don’t have the write permission to group in current directory and all subdirectories ls **/*(.:g-w:) # grep grep -i "$1" **/*.{js,php,css}~(libs|temp|temp|test)/* # exclude directories from grep *N* EXTENDED_GLOB required grep -iw '$direct' report/**/*.{inc,php} # searching for a php variable # deleting double dot files & swap files *N* rm **/.*.swp
# use tab to complete/display history item before executing !1 # oldest command in your history !! # previous command !-2 # command before last !$ (last argument of previous command) !$:h (last argument, strip one level) !$:h:h (last argument, strip two levels) !?echo echo !* !!:* (all parameters) echo !$ !!:$ (last parameter) echo !^ !:1 !!:1 (first previous parameter) echo !:2-3 # echo previous parameters 2 to 3 *N* echo !:2* # echo previous parameters 2 onwards *N* echo !:2- # echo previous parameters 2 onwards omitting last *N* echo !:-3 # echo first 3 previous parameters echo !-2:2 (second parameter of second but last command) echo convert_csv.php(:a) # echo full path *N* touch 1 2 3 # *N* !!:0 !^ !:2 !$ !#$ !#:2 !#1 !#0 # *U* history # View recent commands # history has built-in search (match) *N* history -m 'yum*' history -m 'yum*' 0 fc -l -m 'yum*' 0 !42 # Re-execute history command 42
# substitute previous command r oldstr=newstr !!:s/fred/joe/ # edit previous command replace first fred by joe !!:s/fred/joe/ # Note : sadly no regexp available with :s/// !!:gs/fred/joe/ # edit previous command replace all fred by joe mv Licence\ to\ Print\ Money.pdf !#^:gs/\\ // # rename file removing spaces ^fred^joe # edit previous command replace fred by joe ^str1^str2^:u:p # replace str1 by str2 change case and just display echo chim ^chim^&-&ney-&-&-cheree # reuse LHS !42:p also use control-R ^str1^str2^:G # replace as many as possible # in all of above remember will display changed command WITHOUT executing it *N* cd !?ls #get command and parameters of a previous ls command cd !?ls?:* #get (just) parameters of a previous ls command function scd(){setopt nonomatch;e=/dev/null;cd $1 &> $e||cd ${1}* &> $e||cd *$1 &> $e||cd *${1}* &> $e||echo sorry} *N* function ddump(){diff -w ~dump/"$1" "$1"} # *N* diff local file with new one in dump function cdump(){cp -p ~dump/"$1" "$1"} # *N* replace local file with new one in dump # creating generic scripts function {xyt,xyy} { if [ "$0" = "xyy" ]; then echo run xyy code; else echo run xyt code; fi ; echo run common code } # *N*
Generating a command from an earlier one How to recall the parameters of a previous command, on line 7 below recall the parameters of line 5 5> mv somefile1 /home/saket/stuff/books/ 6> acroread somefile.pdf 7> mv somefile2 /home/saket/stuff/books/ > mv !?saket Would bring up the whole line ready for a little editing or purist > mv !?saket?:* Would just bring up the parameters If you know the history number of the line (say 5) with desired parameters you can try > !5:s/somefile1/somefile2/ and if you dont know the history number !?saket?:s/somefile1/somefile2/ # Variable Substitution *N* s=(fred joe peter);echo ${s/(#m)*/$MATCH[1,3]} # truncate strings in an array # History Substitution Summary #For CURRENT line that you are editing (the # designates current line) # Remember Tab will expand the following !#:0 command !#^ first parameter !#:1 first parameter !#:1-4 first 4 parameters !#$ last parameter !#* all parameters !#$:s/bash/zsh perform substitution on previous parameter # backup a file with a prefix cp longfilename.php backup_!#^ cp {,backup_}longfilename.php # same thing # backup a file with a suffix cp longfilename.php !#^:r.bak cp longfilename.{php,bak} # expands to cp longfilename.php longfilename.bak #For Previous Command (for comparison) !-1 repeat whole command !! repeat (shortcut) !!0 command !^ first parameter !:1 first parameter !:1-4 first 4 parameters !:-4 !:0-4 first 4 parameters plus command !!- all but last parameter *N* !51$ last parameter of history entry 51 *N* !$ last parameter !* all parameters !!:s/bash/zsh (or ^bash^zsh) !^:t just file name of first parameter !$:h just path of last parameter !-2$:r just file name without extension of first parameter For last but one command !-2 repeat last but one command !-2^ first parameter last but one command !-2$ last parameter last but one command !-2:2 second parameter of second but last command !-2:s/bash/zsh etc For history command 42 !42
!:0 is the previous command name !^, !:2, !:3, !$ are the arguments !* is all the arguments !-2, !-3, are earlier commands !-2^, !-2:2, !-2$, !-2* are earlier parameters ls / # recall/step through previous parameters *N* fred='/bin/path/fred.txt' echo ${fred:e} echo ${fred:t} echo ${fred:r} echo ${fred:h} echo ${fred:h:h} echo ${fred:t:r} cd !$:h (remove file name) # cd to directory containing report.php cd **/report.php(:h) *N* cat !!:t (only file name) # Convert images (foo.gif => foo.jpg): $ for i in **/*.gif; convert $i $i:r.jpg # examples of if then else conditionals *N* [[ 0 = 0 ]] && echo eq || echo neq [[ 1 = 0 ]] && echo eq || echo neq if [ $# -gt 0 ];then string=$*;else;string=$(getclip);fi # get parameter OR paste buffer var=133;if [[ "$var" = <-> ]] ; then echo "$var is numeric" ;fi if [[ "$ip" = <-> ]] then # check ip address numeric *N* if [[ "$1" == [0-9] ]] # if $1 is a digit if (( $# == 0 )); if [ $# -gt 0 ] # parameter cnt > 0 (arguments) if [[ "$url" = www* ]] # begins with www if [ "$p1" = "end" ] || [ "$p1" = "-e" ] if [[ "$p2" == *[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z]* ]] # contains at least 3 letters if builtin cd $1 &> /dev/null ; if [[ -e /c/aam/z$1 ]] # file exists if [ $cnt -eq 1 ] if (( ${#dirs} == 1 )); then # count array length if [[ "$pwd" == *$site2* ]] print ${param:&} (last substitute) < readme.txt # < shorthand for more # Directory substitution (magic) # if you were in directory # cd old new /c/inetpub/dev.somehomes.co.uk/epsystem/eppigeon/ cd dev www #would put you in parallel directory /c/inetpub/www.somehomes.co.uk/epsystem/eppigeon/ # completion cd /v/w/h/ # expand to # cd /var/www/html/
# filtering the output of a command conventionally print $(history -n -1|sed 's/.* //') # ${${(z)foo}[2]} zsh filtering mechanism print ${${(z)$(history -n -1)}[-1]} print ${${(z)history[$((HISTCMD-1))]}[-1]} gvim.exe $(history -n -1 | sed "s/^[^ ]* //;s/ .*//") print ${${(z)history[$((HISTCMD-1))]}[2]} # save last 4 history items to a file (without numbers) *N* fc -ln -4 > /tmp/hist # no numbers fc -ln 1 | grep rsync | gvim - fc -l -5 # 5 most recent *N* fc -l 1 5 # 5 oldest *N* fc -l -10 -5 # 10th newest to 5 newest *N* fc -l 1 | more # step through all history *N* history -m 'yum*'
# ls ls **/*.php ls -ld *(/^F) # list any empty sub-directories ls -ld **/*(/^F) # recursively list any empty sub-directories print **/*(/^F) | xargs -n1 -t rmdir #delete empty directories rmdir ./**/*(/od) 2> /dev/null # deletes empty directories autoload zargs;zargs ./**/*.{php,inc,js} -- grep -i 'cons. unit' *N* EXTENDED_GLOB zargs **/*.{js,php,css}~(libs|locallibs|test|dompdf)/* -- grep console.log *C* EXTENDED_GLOB zargs ./**/*.(php|inc|js) -- tar rvf dev2$(date '+%d-%m-%Y').tar *N* # grep whole file structure for php files with if ($var=4) (single equals) bug zargs ./**/*.{inc,php} -- grep -i 'if *( *$[a-z0-9_]*=[0-9"]' ## detect if ($fred=2) type php errors (single equals) *N* # selectively tar a web root *N* zargs ./{html,live}/**/*.(php|inc|js)~(**/wiki|**/dompdf)/* -- tar rvf /tmp/web2$(date "+%d-%m-%Y").tar zargs **/*.(php|inc) -- sed -i 's#ereg_replace("\([^"]*\)"#preg_replace("/\1/"#g' ## global sed substitute using zargs *N* zargs /tmp/*(.m+30) -- rm ls ^x* # list all but x* #list all files without an extension ( no dot) a=(**/*(.D));echo $#a # count files in a (huge) hierarchy *N* ls *~*.*(.) # delete all directories Pictures_of_* except Pictures_of_beautiful_flowers rm -rf Pictures_of_^beautiful_flowers # selective delete *N* ls x*~(x3|x5) # list files x* except x3 and x5 ls **/fred*~*junk*/* # list all files fred* unless in a junk directory # grep, dont use egrep, grep -E is better # single quotes stop the shell, " quotes allow shell interaction grep 'host' **/(*.cfm~(ctpigeonbot|env).cfm) grep -i 'host' **/(*.cfm~(ctpigeonbot|env).cfm)~*((#s)|/)junk*/*(.) egrep -i "^ *mail\(" **/*.php grep "^ *mail\(" **/*.php~*junk*/* #find all calls to mail, ignoring junk directories # grep '.' dot matches one character grep b.g file # match bag big bog but not boog # grep * matches 0 , 1 or many of previous character grep "b*g" file # matches g or bg or bbbbg # grep '.*' matches a string grep "b.*g" file # matches bg bag bhhg bqqqqqg etc # grep break character is \ grep 'hello\.gif' file grep "cat\|dog" file matches lines containing the word "cat" or the word "dog" grep "I am a \(cat\|dog\)" matches lines containing the string "I am a cat" or the string "I am a dog" grep "Fred\(eric\)\? Smith" file # grep fred or frederic # grep back references (memory) grep -i "" *.html # matches pairs of tags tel blenkinsop | grep -o "[[:alnum:][:graph:]]*@[[:alnum:][:graph:]]*" # filter just an email address from a text stream (not zsh) *N* # ls ls *.h~(fred|foo).h # same thing ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls *[^2].php~*template* # list files with 2nd filter ls (xx|yy) # list xx or yy ls *.(jpg|gif) # list graphic files ls fred{joe,sid}.pl ls fred{09..13}.pl # range ls fred<76-88>.pl# list all files fred76.pl to fred88.pl range ls fred<76->.pl # list all files fred76.pl to fred9999*.pl etc ls {_,}fred.php # list files _fred.php fred.php ls (_|)fred.php # same effect by globbing ls *.{jpg,gif}(.N) # don't break if one or other image type absent # FNG optionally matching a character ls -l *y{2,}.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls -l *y(2|).cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls *{y2,y}.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls *y2#.cfm # matches *y.cfm and *y2.cfm *N* ls foot(fall)#.pl # match optional string fall # short version of recursive **/*.php *N* setopt GLOB_Starshort ls **.php
setopt no_case_glob # set ignore case for ls etc zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}' 'r:|[._-]=* r:|=*' 'l:|=* r:|=*' # case insensitive completion for cd etc *N*
# globbing modifiers # :e just the suffix (Extension) # :r removes the suffix (Remove) # :t takes away the path (Tail) # :h takes away one level (Head) # :a adds full Path (Add) # . means must be regular files not directories etc # *(om[1]) picks most recently modified file # (.N) no warning message if any file absent ls (#i)*.pmm # case insensitive globbing (note exact syntax) ls *(.[2]) # second file in list *N* ls *(om[1]) # print the most recent file cp *(om[1]) # will complete file name ls *(.om[1]) # print the most recent file (not directory) ls -l *(Om[1]) # oldest file mv *(.om[2,$]) old/ # move all but newest file *N* ls -lt **/*.txt(D.om[1,5]) # list 5 most recent files in hierarchy # list 5 most recent files in each sub-directory dirs=( '' **/*(DM/) ) eval 'ls ${^dirs}*(ND.om[1,5])' ls {^dev*,}/index.php(.N) # ignore directories beginning dev* ls (dev*|fred*|joe*)/index* # does not break if no matches ls **/index.php~dev*(/*)## # ignore subdirectories dev* multi-level vi *(.om[1]^D) # vi newest file ^D means switch off GLOB_DOTS ie ignore dot files ls *.txt(.om[1]) # ls newest *.txt file *N* ls -tld **/*(m-2)# list files modified in last 2 days in hierarchy ls *(.om[1,5]) # print the 5 most recent files ls *(.Om[1,5]) # print the 5 oldest files ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls -ltd *(mw3) # list files 3 weeks old ls -1ld *([1,10])# list just 10 files one per line , no directories ls *(m-1) # files modified today ls *(m0) # files modified today ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today *N* vi *(m0) # re-edit all files changed today! cp *.mp3(mh-4) /tmp # copy files less than 4 hours old ls -ltd *(mh0) # list files modified only in last hour ls *.{aux,dvi,log,toc} # rm latex temp files *C* rm ./*(Om[1,-11])# removes all files but the ten newest ones (delete all but last 10 files in a directory) mv *.*(^m-1) old/ # move all but today's files to sub-directory archive older files *N* # exact dates (N) ls -l *.*(mM4) autoload -U age ls -tl *.*(e#age 2014/06/01 now#) ls -tl *(.e#age 2014/06/01 2014/06/30#) ls -lt *(.om[0,5]e#age 2017-09-01 2017-10-01#) # 5 newest files in September *N* mv *(.e#age 2017-10-01:00:00:00 2017-10-08:23:59:59#) /tmp # mv all Sept Files ls [01]<->201[45]/Daily\ report*.csv(e#age 2014/10/22 now#) files=(${(f)"$(ls *$**)"}(.N)) # store matching files *N* ls *(n:t) # order by name strip directory ls **/*(On:t) # recursive reverse order by name, strip directory ls PHP*/**/*.php # recursive but only for subdirectories PHP* ls *.c(:r) # strip suffix ls **/*(.) # only files no directories (.) means files only ls -ld *(/) # list only directories
#oddities chmod g+w **/* # group write [[ FOO = (#i)foo ]] # case insensitive matching fred=$((6**2 + 6)) # can do maths : > /apache/access.log # truncate a log file
# arrays X=(x1 x2) # create an array print -C 1 $X # print each array element on it's own line # 2 dimensional arrays- lookup conversion *N* typeset -A convtable convtable=(151 2 152 2 153 2 158 4 159 3 160 2 171 4 172 1 173 4) echo $convtable[158] print ${#path} # length of "path" array print ${#path[1]} # length of first element in path array print ${$( date )[2,4]} # Print words two to four of output of ’date’: array=(~/.zshenv ~/.zshrc ~/.zlogout) filelst[$(($#filelst+1))]=$x # append (push) to an array filelst+=($x) # append (push) to an array (better) files=(${(f)"$(egrepcmd1l)"} ) # push a sentence to an array (where egrepcmd1l is a global alias % print ${array:t} .zshenv .zshrc .zlogout # Substring extraction ${parameter:start:length} , default length is rest *N* a=12345 echo ${a:2:2} 34 echo ${a:2} 345 echo ${a[1,3]} 123
# display shell variables typeset typeset | grep '^[A-Z]='
# zsh one liners alias -g NF='*(.om[1])' # newest file # parse xml file putting each tag on a new line perl -ne 's/(<\/\w+>)/$1\n/g; print' < NF > $(print NF).txt cat NF > $(print NF).txt
# variable substitution somevar="bu&^*ck" # variable with mucky characters print ${somevar//[^[:alnum:]]/_} # replace all non-alphanumerics with _ the // indicates global substitution *C* echo ${file##*/} # echo just the file name (strip the path) echo ${texfilepath%/*.*} # echo just the path (strip the file name) echo ${file%.*} # strip file extension echo $file:r # strip file extension echo ${0##*[!0-9]} # strip all but trailing digit from filename $0 echo ${(M)0%%<->} # strip all but trailing digit from filename file=${1/\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ ANYWHERE in string file=${1/#\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ Beginning of string file=${1/%\//C:\/} # substitute / with c:/ End of string # note # & % are using to match beginning and end JUNK=R.E.M. # substitute last . for a _ print ${JUNK/.(#e)/_} # substitute last . for a _ print ${JUNK/%./_} # substitute last . for a _ wpath=${wpath//\//\\\\} # substitute Unix / with dos \ slashes *N* upath=${wpath//\\/\/} # convert backslashes to forward slashes (Dos to Unix dpath=${upath/#\/c\//c:/} # convert /c/path/ to c:\path\ *N* foo=$'bar\n\nbaz\n' print ${foo//$'\n'} # strip out any carriage returns (some systems use \r) *N* print ${foo%%$'\n'} # strip out a trailing carriage return *N* url='www.some.com/some_strIng-HERe' anchortext=${${(C)url//[_-]/ }:t} # titlecase *N* echo "$anchortext" # strip first char *N* d=fred echo ${d/#?/} echo ${d[2,$]} echo ${d[2,-1]} # strip last char echo ${d/%?/} echo ${d[1,-2]}
# creating a family of functions # generate hrefs from url function href{,s} { # href creates an HTML hyperlink from a URL # hrefs creates an HTML hyperlink from a URL with modified anchor text PROGNAME=`basename $0` url=`cat /dev/clipboard` if [ "$PROGNAME" = "href" ] ; then href="$url" elif [ "$PROGNAME" = "hrefs" ] ; then anchortext=${${(C)url//[_-]/ }:t} href="$anchortext" fi echo -n $col echo $href > /dev/clipboard | more } # access vim scratch files v1,v2 to v9 function vx{0..9} {gvim.exe c:/aax/${0/#v/} &} # # create vim scratch files va,vb to vz function vx{a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m,n,o,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z} { scratchfile=${0/#v/} gvim.exe c:/aax/$scratchfile & }
# regular expressions in zsh examples *N* #pcre perl regular expressions *N* zmodload zsh/pcre setopt REMATCH_PCRE var=ddddd; [[ "$var" =~ ^d+$ ]] && echo matched || echo did not match [[ 'cell=456' =~ '(cell)=(\d+)' ]] && echo $match[1,2] $MATCH *N* var=dddee; regexp="^e+$"; [[ "$var" =~ $regexp ]] && echo $regexp matched $var || echo $regexp did not match $var
# decisions # cd to different drive depending on Windows login name drive=$([[ "$LOGNAME" != davidr ]] && echo '/o' || echo '/c') # trad way cd ${drive}/inetpub/wwwdev/www.some.co.uk/ drive=${${${LOGNAME:#davidr}:+/o}:-/c} # zsh way cd ${drive}/inetpub/wwwdev/www.some.co.uk/ # chaining two modifications # .om[1] gives newest file # cyg is a zsh function doing a path conversion e.g. /c/ to C:/ *C* cyg(){reply=("$(cygpath -m $REPLY)")} gvim.exe $(echo /c/aax/*(.om[1]))(+cyg) & ### nested gvim.exe /c/aax/*(.om[1]+cyg) & #### both operations # odd stuff not necessarily zsh cp -a file1 file # -a transfer permissions etc of file1 to file2preserve # only copy if destination file exists and is older that source file [[ -e $L/config.php ]] && cp -p -update $T/config.php $L *N* # variable with variable name eval "$1=$PWD"
# brilliant will change your life setopt autopushd # *C* dirs -v # *N* cd ~5 # cd to fifth directory in directory stack cd - then type number of directory needs compinit *C* dirs -p # display recent directories *N* cp file ~1 # where 1 is first entry in pushd stack # cp file.txt ~+ # select recent directory *N* ls -1 ~1/*(.om[1]) # newest file previous directory *N* ls -l ~-/*(.m0) # alternative previous directory ~- *N* pushd +2 # cd to 3rd entry in pushd stack #zsh completion startfilename # will complete matching files anywhere in $PATH startfilename # will list matching files anywhere in $PATH vi main*~*temp* # avoid file with temp in the name cd /u/lo/li completes to /usr/local/lib #directory sizes du -sk *(/) # Inline aliases, zsh -g aliases can be anywhere in command line alias -g G='| grep -' alias -g L='| less' #this reduces a command like ls | grep foo | less #to ls G foo L # alias -g R=' > /c/aaa/tee.txt ' # redirect alias -g T=' | tee /c/aaa/tee.txt ' # tee alias -g F=' | fmt -' # format alias -g W=' | wc -l' # wc # integrate php for f (*.(jpg|gif)) {printf $f;php -r "print_r(getimagesize('$f'));" | grep width} alias lsimg=$'(for f (*.(jpg|gif)) {printf $f;php -r "print_r(getimagesize(\'$f\'));" | grep width})' #
# cd by .. or ... or ... or mv file ..../. alias '..'='cd ..' alias -g ...='../..' alias -g ....='../../..' alias -g .....='../../../..'
# suffix based alias alias -s jpg='/c/program\ files/IrfanView/i_view32.exe' now just type the image name to launch irfanview alias -s php='c:/wamp/php/php.exe' # now just type test.php to execute it *N* # named directories (quick jump to a deep sub-directory) hash -d zsh="/usr/src/zsh" # create shortcuts to deep directories *N* cd ~zsh
#magic equals vim =some_file # edits file anywhere in $PATH ls =some_file # lists file anywhere in $PATH #magic ** (recursion) vim **/some_file # edits file under under current dir rm /c/intranet/**/*.stackdump # specify recursion at a sub-directory *N* # modifying more than one file (multios) # writes ls results to file1 & file2 appends to file3 ls > file1 > file2 >> file3 | wc # multi-io myscript >&1 >output.txt # log a script output #Redirection to file as well as send on to pipe: make install > /tmp/logfile | grep -i error
# permissions & ownership *N* ls *(.f644) # files with permissions 644 ls *(.g:root:) # files belonging to group root ls *(.u:apache:) # files belonging to user apache ls -l *(.rwg:nobody:u:root:) # user has read/write permissions
function g{0..9} { gmark $0 $* } # declaring multiple functions
# zmv "programmable rename" autoload -U zmv # Replace spaces in filenames with a underline zmv '* *' '$f:gs/ /_' zmv '(* *)' '${1// /}' zmv -Q "(**/)(* *)(D)" "\$1\${2// /_}" # Change the suffix from *.sh to *.pl zmv -W '*.sh' '*.pl' # lowercase/uppercase all files/directories (-i) interactive $ zmv -i '(*)' '${(L)1}' # lowercase $ zmv -i '(*)' '${(U)1}' # uppercase $ zmv '([a-z])(*).txt' '${(C)1}$2.txt' ; rename fred.txt to Fred.txt
# initialize zsh/config *N* autoload -U compinit compinit # case insensitive completion zstyle ':completion:*' matcher-list 'm:{a-zA-Z}={A-Za-z}' \ 'r:|[._-]=* r:|=*' 'l:|=* r:|=*'
#Wonderful zftp (write ftp scripts as though shell) # init (could be in .zshenv etc) autoload -U zfinit zfinit zfparams www.someweb.co.uk myuserid mypassword zfopen zfcd tips zfls -l zshtips.html zfput zshtips.html zfls -l zshtips.html # replace every occurence of a file (zsh and bash) for f in */include/dbcommon.php; do;cp dbcommon.php $f; done # alternative for loop # replace every instance of file with new version for f (**/x) cp newx $f for f (**/x) {cp newx $f } for f in **/x; do;cp newx $f; done # create a clone of a file, modifying it on the fly *N* for i in {3,4}; sed s/flag=2/flag=$i/ fred.txt > fred$i.txt for i in {1..9}; sed s/flag=2/flag=$i/ fred.txt > fred$i.txt # can be simplified to *N* for f (*.txt) { echo $f } for f (*.txt) echo $f # if no ; for f (*(.)) mv $f fixed_$f for f (*.csv.csv) {mv $f ${f:r}} # remove one level of extension *N* for x ( 1 2 {7..4} a b c {p..n} *.php) {echo $x} *N* # loop a command *N* while true; do echo "infinite loop"; sleep 5; done while (true){echo .;sleep 1} repeat 3 time sleep 3 # single command repeat 5 ;do date; sleep 5; done # multi while true ;do date; sleep 5; done # forever # loop a command *N* for count in {1..10}; do r\m x*([1,10]); # delete 10 files at a time echo "loop $count" done for c ({1..50}) {php ./test.php; sleep 5;} *N* # using vared editor vared -p "choose 1-3 : " -c ans case $ans in 1|a) sdba $key;; 2|f) sdbf $key;; 3|i) sdbi $key;; *) echo "wrong answer $ans\n" ;; esac # the powerful select PROMPT3="Choose File : " select f in $(ls **/*.tex |egrep -i "${param}[^/]*.tex") do if [[ "$REPLY" = q ]] then break elif [[ -n "$f" ]]; then gvim $f fi done # multiple script commands on same line if [ $# -gt 0 ];then string=$*;else;string=$(getclip);fi if grep -iq 'matching' *.php ;then echo "Found" ;else echo "Not Found"; fi *N* # Command on multilines with a backslash ls \ > x* # Command on multilines with a quote sed ' s/mvoe/move/g s/thier/their/g' myfile # editing a variable (You must try this) vared PATH
autoload zkbd && zkbd # get keyboard codes for bindkey *N* bindkey -v # vi mode line editting bindkey -M viins '^O' copy-prev-shell-word bindkey '^L' push-line # push current command into a buffer, allows you to do another command then returns to previous command # use cat > /dev/null and them press key to get keycode or Control-V-F1 # configure F7 to output a command bindkey -s '^v' "ls -l\n" # configure F7 to output 'ls -l' bindkey -s "^[[18~" "ls -l\n" # You must actually type Control-v F7 at CLI this is what it looks like on my system : # put a command string onto f4 bindkey -s "^[OS" "\^d\^c\n" # bind control-n to scroll most recent file [*N] zstyle ':completion:most-recent-file:*' match-original both zstyle ':completion:most-recent-file:*' file-sort modification zstyle ':completion:most-recent-file:*' file-patterns '*(.)' zstyle ':completion:most-recent-file:*' hidden all zstyle ':completion:most-recent-file:*' completer _files zle -C most-recent-file menu-complete _generic bindkey "^N" most-recent-file zstyle ':completion:expand-args-of::::' completer expand-args-of bindkey '^x^a' expand-args-of
# Prompt at end of command line RPROMPT="[%t]" (display the time) # colo(u)red prompt fg_light_red=$'%{\e[1;31m%}' PS3="$fg_light_red Select file : " # print fred in blue color print '\e[1;34m fred' # color module autoload colors ; colors print "$bg[cyan]$fg[blue]Welcome to man zsh-lovers" >> $TTY PROMPT="%{$bg[cyan]%}%{$fg[red]%}%n%{$reset_color%}%{$bg[cyan]%}@%{$fg[red]%}%m %{$fg[yellow]%}%~ %{$reset_color%}%{$bg[cyan]%}%% " echo "$bg[blue]$fg[yellow]highlight a message"
curl -u userid:password -d status=" updating twitter with from curl " http://twitter.com/statuses/update.xml
# my .zshenv *N* autoload -U compinit compinit autoload edit-command-line zle -N edit-command-line bindkey '\ee' edit-command-line VISUAL='/bin/vim' EDITOR='/bin/vim'
#textify a phrase to create an image name s="Fred Goat Dog" print ${(L)s:gs/ /-/}.jpg or print ${(L)s// /-}.jpg and to de-textify an image foo=fred-goat-dog.jpg echo ${(C)foo:gs/-/ /:r} or print ${${(Cs:-:):-fred-goat-dog.jpg}%.*}
#new #" read a file into a variable var="$( # Zsh Syntax Aide-Memoire (concentrated)
*N* cd - # list recent dirs cp 1.php ~- # list recent dirs vi *(om[1]) # edit newest file ls *(.mh3) # modified 3 hours ago ls *(.mh-3) # less than 3 hours ls *(.mh+3) # more than 3 hours gvim -p *(m0) # all files modified today mv *.*(^m-1) old/ # move all but todays files to sub-directory vi -p *(.om[1,3]) # open 3 newest files in tabs (gvim) ls *(^m0) # files NOT modified today ls -l *(m4) # list files modified exactly 4 days ago ls *.(jpg|gif|png)(.) # do not break if one or other image type absent ls ~1/*(.om[1]) # list newest file from previous directory needs setopt autopushcd ls -lt **/*~pdf/*(.m0om[1,10]) # up to 10 files modified in last 24 hrs *N* rm **/.*.sw?~libs/*(.D) # delete vim swop files *N* for f (*.php) { diff $f ${PWD/html/staging}/$f} # diff all files in parallel directories mv !?main # recall previous command containing the string main vi !?main?$ # recall just last parameter of command containing the string main *C* scp -rp *(om[1]) [email protected]:$PWD *N* scp -rp *(om[1]) [email protected]:${PWD/test/live} *N* modify pwd remote path rsync -avz --update --existing *(.m0) backup/ # will only copy file if newer than target, no copy occurs if target absent # upload todays files if newer and existing rsync -vz --stats --existing --update *(.m0) [email protected]:$PWD *N* ls (x*~x[3-5]) # list files x* except x3 to x5 ls **/*~*/.git/* # ignore all git subdirectories *~* matches a path ls (^(backup*|cache*|list*|tmp)/)##*(.) # ignore 4 directories !!:gs/fred/joe/ # edit previous command replace all fred by joe cp NF ${PWD/html/release} # *N* while (true){echo -n .;sleep 1} # *N* *C* #super commands zargs **/*.(js|php|css)~(djr|libs|dompdf)/*~*/junk/* -- grep -i alias phpall='for f (*.php~test.php(om)) {php -l $f} | more' alias phpsub=' for f (./(async|inc)/*.php~test.php(om) *.php(om)) {php -l $f} | more' # *N* alias diffall='for f (*.php~test.php(.om)){diff -q $f ${PWD/html/staging}/$f} 2>&1 | grep differ' alias -g STAG=' ${PWD/html/staging}' # End Zsh Syntax Aide-Memoire (concentrated)
mv Licence\ to\ Print\ Money.pdf !#^:gs/\\ //
A=(1 2 5 6 7 9) # pre-populate an array # *N* for ((i=1;$#A[i];i++)) echo $A[$i] # *N* # debug echo shell commands and provide trace info *N* # you do need XTRACE if you want to echo whats happening in your script setopt XTRACE VERBOSE unsetopt XTRACE VERBOSE
# misc *N* # switch two previously typed words with alt-t *N* bindkey "^[t" transpose-words setopt interactivecomments # allows end of command line comments take(){[ $# -eq 1 ] && mkdir "$1" && cd "$1"} # create a directory and move to it in one go zmodload -F zsh/stat b:zstat zstat -g canal-bridge.mov # full files details *N* # remember current directory : double quotes vital alias markcd="cd $(pwd)" *N* alias gitc='git commit -a -m$(date "+%H%M-%d%m%y")' # alias with dynamic part (single quote)*N* # where is an alias set? zsh -lxic : 2> >(grep "> alias 'web")
# run a remote zsh script via ssh *N* ssh -l root "zsh -c 'for i (/usr/*(/)) {ls \$i }'" # compare local & remote file size *N* FILE=$(echo *(.om[1])) && ls -l $FILE && ssh -l root "zsh -c 'ls -l $PWD/$FILE'" # remote login in with zsh ssh -t [email protected] 'sh -c "cd /tmp && exec zsh -l"' # launch zsh not as sub-shell *N* exec zsh # which shell active *N* ps -p $$ | grep $$ | awk '{print $NF}' # zsh menu echo "enter 0-2,a" read ans ; # read in a parameter case "$ans" in 0|${prog}0) cd "$(cat /c/aam/${prog}0)" ;; 1|${prog}1) cd "$(cat /c/aam/${prog}1)" ;; 2|${prog}9) cd "$(cat /c/aam/${prog}9)" ;; a|${prog}l) cd "$(cat /c/aam/${prog}a)" ;; **) echo "wrong number $ans\n" ;; esac
# zsh hook functions #N# chpwd,periodic,precmd,preexec , zshexit, zshaddhistory preexec(){ echo using [email protected][1]}
# useful aliases # swap / flip between 2 deep parallel directories *N* alias flip=' cd html live > /dev/null &>1 || cd live html > /dev/null &>1' # syntax-check all php files in date order excluding certain alias phpall='for f (*.php~test.php(om)) {php -l $f}' # diff all files in parallel directories in date oder (exclude certain) alias diffall='for f (*.php~test.php(.om)) { diff -q $f ${PWD/html/staging}/$f}'
# locating/identifying stuff *N* which zsh whence -vsa ${(k)commands[(I)zsh*]} # search for zsh* locate zsh cd $(locate -l1 -r "/zoo.txt$")(:h) # cd to directory of first occurence of a file zoo.txt (N) r\m $(locate nohup.out) cd ${$(locate zoo.txt)[1]:h} *N* # treating output of a command as an array locate php.ini # produces a list *N* vi ${$(locate php.ini)[2]} # vi 2nd in list cd ${$(locate php.ini)[3]:h} # cd to 3rd in list cd **/resource.php(:h) *N*
str=aa,bb,cc;print ${(j:,:)${(qq)${(s:,:)str}}} # quotify a string *N*
# completion # define tab-completable parameters p1,p2,p3 for your widget compdef "_values 'widget tool' p1 p2 p3" widget widget p1 p2 p3
# bind history to up down keys autoload -Uz up-line-or-beginning-search autoload -Uz down-line-or-beginning-search zle -N up-line-or-beginning-search zle -N down-line-or-beginning-search bindkey '\eOA' up-line-or-beginning-search bindkey '\e[A' up-line-or-beginning-search bindkey '\eOB' down-line-or-beginning-search bindkey '\e[B' down-line-or-beginning-search
# bind a simple widget to a key *N* function hello_function { echo "hello world" } zle -N hello_widget hello_function bindkey '=' hello_widget # insecure directories warning on cygwin # #run compaudit # compaudit # #It told me that my latest zsh install was insecure (directories were writable) # # The following solved the problem # chmod -R 755 /usr/share/zsh/ # chown -R myusername /usr/share/zsh (on Vista (as admin)
# start zsh from a windows short cut C:\cygwin\bin\mintty.exe -i /Cygwin-Terminal.ico /bin/zsh --login